GERMAN STUDIES REVIEW: Volume XXVIII, Number 2 (May 2005)
    Redemption Songs or How Frank Wedekind Set the Simplicissimus Affair to a Different Tune

    Mary M. Paddock
    Smith College

    Frank Wedekind’s notorious personality has been widely acknowledged by contemporaries and critics, but the nature of his notoriety has seldom been explored. The dramatist’s scandalous public image was not merely a byproduct of an artistic lifestyle and consciousness, but a deliberately cultivated work in its own right. As this article shows, his interest in perpetuating his scandalous reputation was most evident in the aftermath of the Simplicissimus affair, when Wedekind used the cabaret stage to enhance his profile, but also to rehabilitate the infamous reputation he had compromised in his effort to defend himself against the charge of lese majesty.
    “Der Not gehorchend, nicht dem eignen Triebe, ich tu’s der Werbung nur zuliebe!” The Genesis of Bruno Apitz’s Nackt unter Wölfen

    Bill Niven
    The Nottingham Trent University

    It is commonly believed that Bruno Apitz’s world-famous novel about the rescue of a Jewish child by communist prisoners at Buchenwald, Nackt unter Wölfen, was only published in the GDR after political interference by the politburo. This belief is unfounded. There was interference, but at a lower level, and from different quarters. Such lower-level interference was not uncommon in the GDR; the politburo and Ministry for Culture were not the only players in the game of cultural control.
    W. E. B. Du Bois’ Love Affair with Imperial Germany

    Kenneth Barkin
    University of California, Riverside

    W. E. B. Du Bois’ lifelong affection for Imperial Germany, where he studied Political Economy from 1892 to 1894, remains a puzzle to historians, who widely view fin-de-siècle Germany as marked by militarism, anti-Semitism, and racism. How could an educated, sensitive African American spend two of his most “liberating” years in the nationalistic atmosphere of the Kaiser’s Berlin? Two hypotheses are presented here. On the German side, attitudes toward Jews and Africans were in fact different, and Du Bois himself, who was an impeccable dresser, adopted the gloves, cane, silk ties, and hats of the elites, which led Germans to respond to him very differently than Americans.
    “…aus dem Schiffbruch des irdischen Lebens”: The Literature of Karoline von Günderrode and Early German Romantic and Idealist Philosophy

    Steven D. Martinson
    The University of Arizona

    Due, in large part, to her unfortunate suicide, Karoline von Günderrode (1775-1806) has been portrayed as a victim of her times. By appreciating the quality and uniqueness of her contributions to German culture, a much different view of the writer emerges. Her Studienbuch constitutes a running dialogue with some of the most influential theoreticians of her time. She created an impressive body of literature, which shows her mastery of language, form, and action. It is especially in the area of mythology that she excels. Her suicide should be interpreted in her own terms. For Günderrode, death meant new life.
    Marketing German Identity: Richard Wagner’s “Enterprise”

    Nicholas Vazsonyi
    University of South Carolina

    Wagner described himself as the “most German,” the embodiment of the “German spirit.” Scholarship has historically regarded this Germanness as an expression of ideology later instrumentalized for political purposes. A close look at the non-dramatic texts from his Paris years (1840–41) suggests that his self-anointed Germanness was also a marketing strategy. In the Paris essays Wagner appropriates existing literary tropes and discursive formations to fashion himself as “the” German composer. Given the crowded field of French and Italian opera, Wagner established a unique profile for himself even before he devised his own brand of national opera.
    Austrian Fin-de-Siècle Gender Heteroglossia: The Dialogism of Misogyny, Feminism, and Viriphobia

    Agatha Schwartz
    University of Ottawa

    The crisis of gender roles and concepts elicited a lively controversy at the turn of the century. In Austria, misogynist authors like Otto Weininger tried to dominate the debate, but feminists, such as Rosa Mayreder and Grete Meisel-Hess, countered effectively. The third voice in this interaction, that of viriphobia (Helene von Druskowitz and Elsa Asenijeff), has been largely neglected. In the context of the debate over the centrality of biology versus social construction of gender, misogynists focused on the danger of the “feminization” of culture, feminists sought to integrate the feminine, while the viriphobic authors aimed to exclude the masculine.
    Fashioning a Nation: Fashion and National Costume in Bertuch’s Journal des Luxus und der Moden (1786–1827)

    Karin A. Wurst
    Michigan State University

    Clothing is one of many cultural practices that represent national identity as culturally constructed. The debate on the merits of a national costume versus fashion from the dawning years of the French Revolution to the post-Napoleonic restoration illuminates the tension between self-regulatory market forces governing fashion and the resistance to fashionable consumption, which hoped to stabilize society through a dress code in the name of national renewal. This national costume debate occasioned a discussion on the forms that social and cultural reform should take in contemporary periodical literature, culminating in the popular Journal des Luxus und der Moden.
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